> The design description. Daewoo Matiz (since 1997 of release)
Daewoo Matiz since 1997 of release
1. The general data
2. Maintenance service
3. The engine
4. Transmission
5. A running gear
5.1. Possible malfunctions of a running gear and methods of their elimination
5.2. A forward suspension bracket
5.3. A back suspension bracket
5.4. Tyres and wheels
5.4.1. The design description
5.4.2. Possible malfunctions of tyres and wheels and methods of their elimination
5.5. Adjustment of installation of wheels
6. A steering
7. Brake system
8. Systems of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning
9. A body electric equipment
10. A body
11. Schemes электроборудования
 




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5-4-1-opisanie-konstrukcii.html

5.4.1. The design description

Protector — the part of the tyre adjoining to a surface of road and directly fixed from an outer side of a skeleton and брекера. Represents a strong rubber covering from highly wearproof rubber. Operational qualities depend on a profile surface.
Брекеркордовый the belt between a protector and a skeleton — prevents damages of the internal cord, caused by external blows and vibration.
The skeleton is a body is made of the rolled up sheets of a cord executed from strong synthetic fiber glass. The skeleton forms tyre structure. The skeleton supports pressure in the tyre and is exposed to loading and blows, therefore it has antifatigue properties.
Board — a steel wire, a final part of a cord of the skeleton, covered with a rubber tape and wrapped nylon кордовым sheet. It fixes the tyre to edge.
The tyres used in cars made nowadays, бескамерные.
Боковина serves for improvement of convenience of driving, by protection of movement of a skeleton and a lining.

Fig. 5.63. Structure бескамерных tyres




The structure бескамерных tyres is presented on fig. 5.63.
Marks of the tyre 175/60 R13 77H are deciphered as follows:
175 — width in mm;
60 — the relation of height to width in percentage х100;
R — the radial tyre;
13 — diameter of a rim in inches;
77 — an index of the maximum loading;
H — a symbol designating the maximum speed.
Hydroplaning

Fig. 5.64. A condition of hydroplaning and normal contact of the tyre to a road covering




The condition of fast driving of the car on the road covered with a sheet of water, can become the reason пробуксовывания or невращения wheels at contact to a surface. As a result the wheel condition passes in floating (fig. 5.64). It is called as hydroplaning and is at the bottom of bad braking, low traction effort and management loss.
Process качения tyres is accompanied by compression and restoration of elements of the tyre. However with increase in speed качения the deformed elements of the tyre have not time to be restored and in protector elements there are fluctuations. Wave formation in the tyre is formed at the lowered pressure of air in the tyre and at high speed.
The criterion of efficiency of tyres is underlined it боковине in which its sizes and the basic characteristics are specified. On marks judge traction properties, firmness of the tyre, characteristics of noise, resistance качению.

THE PREVENTION
Do not establish on the car different types of tyres, such as radial and diagonal tyres, excepting unforeseen and necessary cases. It can seriously affect driving and lead to control loss.


Do not change the tyre 140/70 R13 or 155/65 R13 for tyres 145/60 R13. It can affect driving and can become the reason of loss of the control. If you change tyres 145/70 R13 or 155/65 R13 on 175/60 R13, it is necessary to change the steering mechanism in gathering.
At replacement use tyres only one size, with an identical mode of loading and an original design. Use of other sizes or types of designs of tyres can seriously affect movement, management, speedometer/odometra calibration, a road gleam of the car and a backlash between a wheel, a body and the chassis. It does not concern a spare wheel by which the car is equipped. It is recommended to establish new tyres on one axis in steam.
If it is necessary to replace only one tyre, combine it with the tyre having the greatest height of a protector for alignment of brake forces of wheels.
In spite of the fact that registration of a protector of tyres can look a miscellaneous, the tyres which are let out by various manufacturers, are identical. They can be used on one car.
The majority of cars now are equipped металлокордными with all-weather radial tyres. Quality of these tyres equally with quality of winter tyres. They have average norm of coupling on snow-covered road for 37 percent above, than the usual radial tyres used earlier. Cohesive force at a wet road covering, resistance качению, drawing of a protector and ability of keeping of air in the tyre are improved by change of a design of a protector and tyre structure. These tyres are marked by letters М+S, engraved on боковине which follow number of the size, and also on боковине after number. The usual tyres used on some cars, are not all-weather tyres.
The label about tyres is located at an end face of a door of the driver; on it the information on the tyre should be specified: the maximum load-carrying capacity of a vehicle, the size of the tyre (including the spare tyre) and pressure of air in the cold tyre (including the spare tyre).
The car is delivered by the completed full-size spare wheel. Wheels should be replaced, if they are bent, deformed, have excessive cross-section or radial palpation, air leak, have oblong apertures for bolts or if bolts of fastening of a wheel cannot be tightened or have strongly rusted. Wheels with excessive palpation become the reason of vibration of the car. Replaced wheels should be equivalent to original wheels in a safe load, diameter, width of a rim, displacement (or balancing) and fastening configurations. The wheel of the inadequate size or type can affect service life of a wheel and bearings, cooling of the brake mechanism, speedometer / calibration одометра, a road gleam of the car, a backlash between a wheel, a body and the chassis.
Recommended pressure in tyres for some cars carefully is calculated for achievement of good movement, management, durability of a protector and a safe load. Pressure in the tyre should be checked monthly to a trip. Check pressure upon the cold tyre, after three hours' journey or after passage less than 1,5 km. Establish pressure size in the tyres, specified on a label located at an end face of a door of the driver. The cap of the gate of the tyre should be on the valve for protection of hit of water and corrosion formation.
The size of the pressure exceeding the recommended size, can become the reason:
-rastreskivanija or tyre damages;
- Fast deterioration of a protector on the tyre centre.
The pressure size, smaller the recommended size, can become the reason:
- Squeal of tyres at car turn;
- A heavy steering;
- Fast and non-uniform deterioration of edges of a protector of the tyre;
-rastreskivanija or rupture of a rim of the tyre;
- Damages of a cord of the tyre;
- The raised temperature of the tyre.
Different pressure of tyres upon one axis are at the bottom:
- Non-uniform braking;
- Car withdrawal;
- Management easings;
- Deviations from a trajectory at acceleration;
- Drift at turns.
Forward and back wheels perform various work and roads, driving manners etc. can wear out differently depending on the tyre. Forward wheels wear out faster, than back.

Fig. 5.65. The scheme of shift of wheels




For avoidance of non-uniform deterioration of wheels and increase in durability of tyres check and rearrange their each 5000 km (fig. 5.65). After shift of wheels adjust pressure in tyres and check up an inhaling of nuts of fastening of a wheel.
Balancing of wheels should be executed, if vibration cases take place at high speeds or at tyre or wheel replacement. At carrying out of balancing of wheels:
- Do not use more than two balancing грузика with internal and a flange outer side;
- The gross weight грузиков should not exceed 100 gramme;
- Balancing of wheels with original aluminium disks demands use special грузиков with the clips, covered with nylon.
Pressure specifications in tyres are resulted in tab. 5.6.

Table 5.6     pressure Specifications in tyres
Tyres
Wheel
Lobbies
The back


кПа
Kg/sm2
кПа
Kg/sm2
145/70 R13, 155/65 R13
4,5Jх13 (steel)
207 (207) *
2,109 (2,109) *
207 (234) *
2,109 (2,3902) *
175/60 R13
5Jх13 (aluminium)
207 (207) *
2,109 (2,109) *
207 (234) *
2,109 (2,3902) *
175/60 R13
4,5Jх13 (steel)
207 (207) *
2,109 (2,109) *
207 (234) *
2,109 (2,3902) *
* 4—5 passengers.

Data on transfer of pressure from кПа in kg/sm2 in tab. 5.7.

Table 5.7 the      Table of transfer of pressure from кПа in kg/sm2
кПа
Kg/sm2
кПа
Kg/sm2
кПа
Kg/sm2
140
1,4060
186
1,8981
234
2,3902
145
1,4763
193
1,9684
241
2,4605
152
1,5466
200
2,0387
248
2,5308
159
1,6169
207
2,1090
276
2,8120
166
1,6872
214
2,1793
310
3,1635
172
1,7575
221
2,2496
345
3,5150
179
1,8278
228
2,3199
349
3,8665

The moments of an inhaling of fastening of wheels are resulted in tab. 5.8.

Table 5.8 the      Moments of an inhaling of fastening of wheels, Нм
Nuts of fastening of a disk from an aluminium alloy
90-110
Nuts of fastening of a steel disk
90-110

To return back
5.4. Tyres and wheels
On the following page
5.4.2. Possible malfunctions of tyres and wheels and methods of their elimination