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3.3.1. The design description
The storage battery
The storage battery carries out three main functions in electric system of the car:
- Gives an electric current for engine start-up;
- Stabilises pressure in electric system;
- Can provide in a short space of time with a current when energy consumption exceeds target capacity of the generator.
Tight storage batteries standard for all cars. They on the case do not have jellied stoppers. The storage battery is completely tight, not including two small lateral apertures for ventilation. These ventilating apertures allow to disappear to the formed gases. Tight storage batteries have following advantages over usual storage batteries:
- For durability of storage batteries it is not necessary to add waters;
- The battery is protected from a recharge. If too big pressure is brought to the storage battery, it will not accept so much current, how many the usual battery. Pressure increase will continue to charge the usual battery that leads газообразованию and electrolit loss;
- The battery is subject to self-gymnastics as the usual battery. It is very important, when the car costs in one place long time;
- At the smaller sizes and weight pressure and a current strength remained former.
The storage battery has two indicators:
- The indicator of capacity of the storage battery is defined at 27 ° With which at full gymnastics provides 10,5 In and more;
- The indicator of the storage battery at start-up of the cold engine is defined by testing at—18 ° With which shows capacity of the battery at проворачивании a cranked shaft at the cold engine.
Reserve capacity of the storage battery is defined as the greatest possible long time for movement in the night from the minimum electric loading without use of target capacity of the generator. Expressed in minutes, reserve capacity (or the indicator) is necessary time for the full charged accumulator room of the battery at 27 ° With and a discharge a current 25 And for achievement on pressure plugs in 10,5 Century
Current strength testing at start-up of the cold engine is spent at—18 ° by S.Minimalnyj an indicator of a current strength which should be kept the battery at the set temperature while there is a minimum pressure in 7,2 Century
This indicator is measured at start-up of the cold engine.
Service life of the storage battery is not boundless. Nevertheless, at appropriate leaving the storage battery will serve many years.
If the storage battery has passed test well, but failures in work for no apparent reason come to light, following factors can be a cause of defect or refusal:
- Any device has been left included on all night long;
- The car moved to the short periods on small speed;
- Electric loading of the car exceeded target capacity of the generator, is frequent with inclusion of the non-standard equipment;
- Malfunction in gymnastics system: sliding of a belt of the generator, malfunction of the generator or malfunction of a regulator of pressure and т.д;
- Battery misuse: непроведение cleanings, fastening of plugs or easing of clips;
- Mechanical malfunctions of electric system: the short-circuited or jammed wires.
Tight storage batteries have built in ареометр with temperature indemnification in its top part, used for below-mentioned diagnostics:
- When look on ареометр, make sure that the top part of the battery the pure;
- At normal work two indications should be received:
The VISIBLE GREEN POINT — occurrence of the green colour, named «a green point» means that the battery is ready to testing;
DARK GREEN INVISIBLE POINT — if there are complaints to start-up of the cold engine, battery testing is necessary. During the same time electric systems and gymnastics should be checked up. There can be a third condition:
PURE OR LIGHT YELLOW COLOUR — level of a liquid below a tip ареометра. It can become the reason of excessive or long gymnastics, excessive or normal deterioration of the battery. Therefore gymnastics and electric systems can require check if there are complaints to start-up of the cold engine. If the battery — the reason of the complaint to bad start-up of the cold engine, replace it.
Gymnastics of the storage battery
The storage battery with a green point shows that the gymnastics are not necessary, while the battery will not be discharged as, for example, at start-up of the cold engine.
At gymnastics of the storage battery with герметизированными plugs out of the car, establish an adapter. Make sure that all connections зарядного devices pure and reliable. For the best result the battery should be charged, when the electrolit and plates has a room temperature. Extremely cold batteries can not be charged some hours after the gymnastics beginning.
Charge the storage battery, there will be no yet a green point. In the course of gymnastics the battery should be checked each 30 minutes the Inclination or agitation can be necessary for occurrence of a green point.
After gymnastics the storage battery should be tested.
Time necessary for gymnastics of the storage battery, depends from:
- The size of the battery — for completely discharged high-capacity battery intended for work in a heavy mode, time in 2 times more than for gymnastics of the storage battery of the car is necessary;
- Temperatures — for battery gymnastics at—18 ° With it is required to more time, than at 27 ° зарядное the device is connected by S.Kogda to the cold battery, at first gymnastics degree will be very low, but in process of growth of temperature of the battery gymnastics degree will raise;
- Ability зарядного devices — зарядное the device with a current of gymnastics 5 And will demand more time for gymnastics, than зарядное the device with a current of gymnastics 30 And or is more;
- Charge conditions — for gymnastics of completely discharged battery it is necessary twice more charge, than for gymnastics of two half discharged batteries because in completely discharged battery of electrolits comes nearer on structure almost to pure water and is a bad conductor. Then, as the charging current leads to increase in the maintenance of acid in electrolit, also gymnastics degree accordingly increases.
Gymnastics of completely discharged accumulator room of the battery
Below-mentioned procedure use for a recharge of completely discharged battery:
- Measure pressure on battery plugs by the exact voltmeter. If value of the measured size more low 10 In, gymnastics current is very low, and it can occupy some time before the battery will accept superfluous a little миллиампер;
- Put зарядное the device on a high place. Some заline devices have the scheme of protection against the return polarity preventing gymnastics at wrong connection with plugs of the battery. Completely discharged battery has no sufficient pressure to put in action this scheme even if wires are connected correctly. It will lead to that the battery will not be charged. Therefore follow special instructions of the manufacturer зарядных devices that зарядное the device has joined and has started to charge the battery with a low voltage;
- In зарядных devices pressure and current strength regulators are provided. Time necessary for gymnastics of the battery depending on various values of pressure, are resulted in tab. 3.7.
Table 3.7 Time of gymnastics of the storage battery depending on initial pressure of the battery
Initial pressure, In
Time of gymnastics of the storage battery
16,0 or more
Till 4 o'clock
Till 8 o'clock
13,9 or less
Till 16 o'clock
If it is impossible to measure the charge received by the battery after the expiration of time of gymnastics, it is necessary to replace the battery.
If the received charge is measured in gymnastics process, the battery is serviceable, the gymnastics should be finished as usually.
It is very important to remember: completely discharged battery should be charged to necessary quantity of ampere-hours (А·ч) for restoration of its working condition. As a rule, use of an indicator of capacity as quantities of ampere-hours of gymnastics, leads to occurrence of a green point.
If the charge received by the battery is not measured after the expiration of time of the gymnastics, the calculated above-stated method, it is necessary to replace the battery.
If the received charge is measured during gymnastics time the battery is serviceable also gymnastics it is necessary to finish in the usual way.
Start-up of the engine from the external storage battery
Position of the car with the serviceable "external" storage battery should provide, that wires could reach from one battery another.
Switch off on both cars the ignition, all headlights and lanterns, and also other consumers of an electric current.
Include emergency illumination or other lamps of illumination if that is demanded by circumstance.
Tighten levers of lay brakes of both cars.
Make sure that wires «прикуривателя» are not near to pulleys, the fan or other details which start moving at engine start-up.
Translate the lever of switching of a transmission in neutral position.
Do not use a wire with the absent or damaged isolation as it is possible to be traumatised.
Fix one end of the first wire to "the positive" plug of the storage battery. Make sure that it does not adjoin to other metal parts. Fix other end of this wire on the positive plug of other battery. Never connect other end to "the negative" plug of the discharged battery.
Never connect a wire directly with "the negative" plug of the discharged accumulator room of the battery. Such connection can lead to occurrence of a spark and explosion of the storage battery.
Fix one end of the second wire to the negative plug of the serviceable storage battery. Connect other end to "weight" of the engine of the car with the discharged storage battery not less than in 450 mm from the discharged accumulator room of the battery, for example, to a towing arm.
Start up the engine on the car with the serviceable storage battery. The engine should work on moderate frequency of rotation within several minutes. Then start up the engine on the car with the discharged storage battery.
Accurately remove wires. At first remove "a negative" wire from the discharged accumulator room of the battery. At removal of each clip take care, that they have not concerned other metal parts until other ends are connected.
The system of gymnastics Delco—Remy CS includes some accessible models of generators, including x114D (Type) or CS114D (Type-in). Figures designate external diameter статора in millimetres. Generators CS are equipped by internal regulators of pressure. Connection by "asterisk" (Type) or "triangle" (Type-in) статора, диодный the bridge, a rotor with contact rings and brushes are similar to that for generators of the previous designs. Also usual pulley and the fan are used. The control aperture is absent. Three-wire generators — x114D or CS114D (Type-in) — can be used (Type) only in two connections: with плюсовой the plug of the storage battery and with plug L of a display lamp of gymnastics.
At work of the generator the electric current proceeding on a winding of excitation, creates a magnetic stream round rotor poles. At rotor rotation under each tooth статора passes that southern, northern pole of a rotor; the working magnetic stream passing through teeth статора, varies on size and pressure. This variable magnetic stream creates in a winding статора electromotive power. The klinoobraznaja form of polar tips of a rotor is picked up in such a manner that allows to receive the form of curve electromotive power close to the sinusoidal.
At high frequency of rotation of a rotor of the generator when pressure of the generator exceeds 13,6 — 14,6 In, the pressure regulator is locked, and the current through a winding of excitation does not pass. Pressure of the generator falls, the regulator opens and again passes a current through an excitation winding. The above frequency of rotation of a rotor of the generator, the is more time of a closed condition of a regulator, hence, that pressure on a generator exit more strongly decreases. Process of lock-out and regulator unlocking occurs to high frequency. Therefore pressure fluctuations on a generator exit are not appreciable, and it is almost possible to consider to its constants supported at level 13,6 — 14,6 V.Na to high frequency of rotation inclusion time can make 10 % and deenergizing time — 90 %. On small frequency of rotation with the big electric loading inclusion time can be 90 % and deenergizing time — 10 %.
The starter is an electric motor of a direct current with the mixed excitation with the electromagnetic traction relay. The starter consists of the case or статора with windings of excitation, an anchor with обгонной муфтой, covers with щеткодержателями and the traction relay.
At starter inclusion through a winding of the traction relay of a starter the current from the storage battery starts to proceed. The relay anchor is involved also relay contacts become isolated. Simultaneously the relay anchor through the lever moves обгонную муфту with a gear wheel. The nave обгонной муфты turns on screw шлицах a shaft of an anchor of a starter and a gear wheel that facilitates its input in gearing with a gear wreath of a flywheel. Through the closed contacts of the traction relay there is a current feeding windings статора both anchors, and the starter anchor starts to rotate together with a nave and обгонной муфтой.
After start of the engine frequency of rotation of a gear wheel exceeds frequency of rotation of an anchor of a starter. In this case обгонная муфта it is freely turned, and the twisting moment is not transferred from an engine flywheel to a shaft of an anchor of a starter. After отпускания the ignition key the feed circuit of windings of the traction relay through the ignition switch is disconnected, the anchor of the traction relay is wrung out by a spring in a starting position, relay contacts are disconnected also a drive gear wheel leaves gearing with a gear wreath of a flywheel.
The ignition distributor
The ignition distributor:
- Distributes developed by the coil of ignition a high voltage to each candle of each cylinder when due hereunder;
- Regulates a corner of an advancing of ignition according to power setting.
In the car the ignition distributor (type of the optical gauge), a supervising primary current of the coil of ignition by the electronic block of management (ЭБУ) which operates ignition installation by an electronic way is used.
The ignition coil
The ignition coil — the kind of the converter making a high voltage (15000-25000) which causes a spark in a spark plug. It (coil) concerns type of coils with the iron case with closed магнитопроводом. The type of the coil of ignition with closed магнитопроводом is used for high voltage systems. In comparison with coils of ignition with opened магнитопроводом, coils with closed магнитопроводом do not lose a magnetic stream and have the smaller sizes.
The spark plug — a part of a secondary winding of ignition — ignites the compressed fuel mix for the account искрообразования from a high voltage developed by the coil of ignition.